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C band programming ("compromise" band) is a portion of electromagnetic spectrum in the microwave range of frequencies ranging from 4 to 6 GHz. C band programming is primarily used for satellite communications, normally downlink 3.74.2 GHz horizontal polarization, uplink 5.96.4 GHz vertical polarization, usually 24 36 MHz transponders on board a satellite. The applications include full-time satellite TV networks or raw satellite feeds, although subscription c band programming also exists. There are more than 20 C-band satellites hovering over North America, which provide more than 250 video channels and 75 audio services. Typical antenna sizes on C-band capable systems range from 7.5 to 12 feet (2 to 3.5 m).

This contrasts with direct broadcast satellite and c band programming, which is a completely closed system used to deliver subscription programming to small satellite dishes connected to proprietary receiving equipment.

C band programming is highly associated with TVRO satellite reception systems or "big dish" systems. Larger antennas and more expensive receivers, C band programming usually provides better video quality and is less affected by rain attenuation than the Ku band. Contrary to popular belief, digital C band programming does in fact exist. The NATO C band programming is defined as frequency band between 0.5 and 1 GHz (0.3 and 0.6 m).

C band programming is a portion of the electromagnetic spectrum used heavily for satellite and microwave transmission; frequencies of approximately 4 to 6 GHz. The frequencies in the 4 to 6 GHz range used both for terrestrial microwave links and satellite links. The c band programming bandwidth between 4 GHz and 6 GHz on the electromagnetic spectrum used for satellite transmissions.  In electrical networks, a portion of the radio frequency spectrum. Communication satellites operate on frequencies from 5.925 to 6.425 GHz for uplinks and 3.7 to 4.2 GHz for downlinks. In optical networks, a range of wavelengths between 1535nm and 1565nm.  A part of the frequency spectrum used primarily by satellite c band programming transmissions. Normally in the range from 4 to 6 GHz.

Satellite television and c band programming is television delivered by way of orbiting communications satellites located 37,000 km (22,300 miles) above the earth's surface. The first satellite television signal was relayed from Europe to the Telstar satellite and c band programming over North America in 1962. The first domestic North American satellite to carry television was Canada's Anik 1, which was launched in 1973.

Satellite television, like other communications relayed by satellite, starts with a transmitting antenna located at an uplink facility. Uplink satellite dishes are directed toward the satellite that its signals will be transmitted to, and are very large, as much as 9 to 12 meters (30 to 40 feet) in diameter. The increased diameter results in more accurate positioning and improved signal reception at the satellite and c band programming. The signal is transmitted to devices located on-board the satellite called transponders, which retransmit the satellite signal back towards the Earth at a different frequency.

The satellite signal, quite weak after travelling through space and c band programming, is collected by a parabolic receiving dish, which reflects the weak signal to the dish's focal point and is received, down-converted to a lower frequency band and amplified by a device called a low-noise block downconverter, or LNB (Direct broadcast satellite dishes use an LNBF, which integrates the feedhorn with the LNB).

A new form of satellite antenna and c band programming, which does not use a directed parabolic dish and can be used on a mobile platform such as a vehicle, was recently announced by the University of Waterloo. 

The signal, now amplified, travels to a satellite receiver box through coaxial cable (RG-6 or RG-10; cannot be standard RG-59) and is converted by a local oscillator to the L-band range of frequencies (approximately). Special on-board electronics in the receiver box and c band programming help tune the signal and then convert it to a frequency that a standard television can use.

There are two primary types of satellite television distribution: direct broadcast satellite (DBS) and television receive-only (TVRO) and c band programming.


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C band programming

Direct broadcast satellite, or DBS, is a relatively recent development in the world of television distribution. "Direct broadcast satellite" can either refer to the communications satellites themselves that deliver DBS service or the actual satellite television service. DBS systems are commonly referred to as "minidish" systems. The first commercial DBS service, Sky Television, was launched in 1989. Sky TV originated as a four-channel service on the Astra satellite. Sky TV is a Europe DBS service and is now owned by News Corporation.


PrimeStar began broadcasting using medium-power Ku-band satellite signals to North America in 1991. DirecTV Group's DirecTV, the first high-powered DBS system, went online in 1994. At the time, DirecTV's introduction was the most successful consumer electronics debut in American history.

Although PrimeStar transitioned to a digital system in 1994, it was ultimately unable to compete with DirecTV, which required a smaller satellite dish and could deliver more programming. DirecTV eventually purchased PrimeStar in 1999 and migrated all PrimeStar subscribers to DirecTV equipment.

In 1996, Echostar's DISH Network went online in the United States and went on to similar success as DirecTV's primary competitor. In 2003, Echostar attempted to purchase DirecTV, but the U.S. Department of Justice denied the purchase based upon monopoly concerns.

In 2003, News Corporation purchased a controlling interest in DirecTV's parent company, Hughes. News Corporation also owns the Fox TV and 20th Century Fox studios. In 2004, Rainbow DBS launched a new DBS service called VOOM, emphasizing that it featured more HDTV channels than either DirecTV or DISH. In addition there are dozens of satellite television stations that broadcast to specialized ethnic communities. DBS uses special high-powered Ku-band satellites that send digitally-compressed television and audio signals to 18- to 24-inch (45 to 60cm) fixed satellite dishes. DBS systems transmit signals to Earth in what is called the Broadcast Satellite Service (BSS) portion of the Ku band between 12.2 and 12.7GHz. Thanks to digital compression technologies, DBS systems can deliver hundreds of cable TV-style programming channels, as well as local network television affiliates.
DBS services offer many advantages over traditional analog services such as cable TV. DBS services generally offer a better picture quality and more channels than analog cable. DBS services also offer additional features like an on-screen guide, DVR functionality, HDTV, Pay-Per-View, and 5.1 sound. Cable companies have responded by introducing digital cable, which offers more channels and many of the same features as DBS.

DirecTV and Echostar both offer DVR units. These units integrated the digital-recording of a DVR with the capabilities of a traditional receiver/decoder. DirecTV's unit is powered by technology licensed from TiVo Inc.. Hughes (the parent company of DirecTV) and Echostar also offer high-speed internet access, mostly to rural customers who cannot access broadband via ADSL or cable modem. Service is generally spotty and expensive, but it generally superior to dial-up service and is often the only option.

 List of Satellite Programming Providers:
This is a list of direct broadcast satellite providers according to location.
Canada - Bell ExpressVu, StarChoice 
Europe - SIRIUS, SES Astra
Indonesia - Indovision
Japan - SkyPerfect 
Latin America - DirecTV Latin America 
Turkey - Digiturk 
United Kingdom - Sky Television 
South Africa and southern Africa - Multichoice 
United States - DirecTV, DISH Network, VOOM

DirecTV is a direct broadcast satellite (DBS) service that broadcasts digital satellite television and audio to households in the United States.

Owned by DirecTV Group, a subsidiary of News Corporation's Fox Entertainment Group, DirecTV was launched in 1994 and was the first high-powered DBS service in the world. DirecTV typically uses smaller 18-inch satellite dishes to receive its signals. Slightly larger, 18 x 24-inch oval antennas to access multi-satellites are becoming more common as DirecTV (as well as other DBS services) are attempting to squeeze more programming onto their growing systems, particularly local television network affiliates stations as well as hybrid systems that also receive broadband satellite Internet service.

DirecTV has long been a victim of an active piracy underground but has recently begun to crack down on illegal reception of its signals. On its anti-piracy website (, DirecTV claims to have sued over 24,000 end users as of March 17, 2004, including celebrity O.J. Simpson. DirecTV bases their suits on purchase records of ISO-7816 Smart Card devices, which have the potential to rewrite DirecTV access cards. The Electronic Frontier Foundation has created a website ( to help those defendants who have been wrongfully sued by DirecTV.
In 1998 DirecTV acquired its partner, USSB for $1.3 billion. In 1999 DirecTV acquired PrimeStar for $1.83 billion. In 2003, a merger with EchoStar, owner of DISH Network, fell through. On December 22, 2003, controlling interest in Hughes Electronics was sold by General Motors to News Corporation.
DirecTV is often abbreviated as "DTV". However, DTV has recently been used to refer to digital television, giving rise to the unofficial acronym "D*".

DirecTV receivers (television set-top boxes) were originally referred to as "Digital Satellite Service", or DSS, so that services being broadcast by both DirecTV and USSB would appear to be received by generic equipment. In 1998, after the acquisition of USSB, an American court ruled that the term "DSS" was an already trademarked term that could not be used by DirecTV. DirecTV offers standard television including local channels in most markets. Local channels are transmitted over terrestrial optical fiber networks to the Castle Rock Broadcast Center, in Castle Rock, Colorado, where they are uplinked. DirecTV also offers high definition (HDTV); and a digital video recorder (DVR) service in partnership with TiVo. It has now more than 12 million customers in the US and 1.5 million in Latin America. 2002 revenues were USD 8.9 billion. The Economist has suggested that News Corp would eventually like to merge DirecTV with its UK satellite operation, BSkyB and possibly its Star network to form a global satellite TV company.

Dish Network
The DISH Network is a direct broadcast satellite (DBS) service that broadcasts digital satellite television and audio to households in the United States. Owned by Echostar, DISH Network was launched in March, 1996 and is DirecTV's primary competitor in the United States.

DISH Network originally used an 18-inch satellite dish called DISH 300 which allowed subscribers to receive a signal from one satellite location. Nowadays, DISH Network uses 20-inch satellite dishes called DISH 500, which allows subscribers to receive satellite signals from two satellite locations simultaneously. Slightly larger, 36"x20" dishes (called SuperDISH) are being introduced with capability to receive satellite signals from three satellite locations simultaneously. Both DISH 500 and SuperDISH are becoming more common as DISH Network (as well as other DBS services) are attempting to squeeze more programming onto their growing systems, particularly local American television network affiliates stations, and foreign programming.

In 2003, DISH Network began providing in-flight satellite TV service to the U.S. airline Song. In 2004, selected music channels from Sirius satellite radio were added to DISH Network's lineup of audio-only channels. DISH Network is also partnered with Starband to deliver broadband satellite Internet service along with its television service.

In 2005, All selected music channels from Music Choice were added to DISH Network's lineup of audio-only channels, as well as America's Top 240 and Dish Latino Gold. Every month, DISH Network has a show called Charlie Chat which features news about upcoming hardware, programming events, and new channels. Charlie Ergen and Jim De Franco host the show and take questions from e-mail and live callers.

The following is a list of channels available on the Dish Network:

A&E Network
ABC Family 
America's Collectibles Network 
American Independent Network 
American Movie Classics 
America One TV 
America's Store 
Animal Planet 
Annenberg/CPB Channel 
Auto Channel 
Auction TV 
BBC America 
Beauty & Fashion 
BET on Jazz 
The Biography Channel 
Black STARZ! 
Black STARZ! (West) 
Bloomberg TV 
B-Mania TV 
Bravo Network 
Cartoon Network 
Catalog TV 
The Church Channel 
Cinemax (West) 
Classic Arts Showcase 
CNBC World 
CNNfn/CNN International 
CNN Sports Illustrated 
Colours TV 
Comcast Sports Network 
Comedy Central 
The Comedy Network 
Country Music TV 
Deutsche Welle 
Direct 2 U Network 
The Discovery Channel 
Discovery Civilization 
Discovery Health 
Discovery Home & Leisure 
Discovery Kids 
Discovery Times 
Discovery Wings 
Dish-CD (digital audio only) 
Dish Music (digital audio only) 
The Disney Channel 
The Disney Channel (West) 
Documentary Channel 
Do-It-Yourself Network 
National Geographic Channel 
Educating Everyone 
Encore (East) 
Encore Action 
Encore Love Stories 
Encore Mystery 
Encore True Stories 
Encore WAM! 
Encore Westerns 
ESPN Alternate 
ESPN Alternate 3 
ESPN Alternate 4 
ESPN Classic 
ESPN2 Alternate 
Eternal Word TV Network 
Fine Living 
FLIX! (West) 
Food Network 
Fox Movie Channel 
Fox News Channel 
Fox Sports (18 channels ONLY!) 
Fox Sports World 
Free Speech TV 
Game Show Network 
Gol TV 
The Golf Channel 
GoodLife TV Network 
Good Samaritan Network 
Great American Country 
The Hallmark Channel 
HBO (West) 
HBO 2 
HBO 2 (West) 
HBO Comedy 
HBO Family 
HBO Family (West) 
HBO Latino 
HBO Signature 
HBO Signature (West) 
HBO Zone 
Headline News 
The Health Network 
Health TV 
Healthy Living 
Hispanic TV Network 
The History Channel 
History International 
Home & Garden TV 
Home Shopping Network 
The Idea Channel 
Independent Film Channel 
Inspirational Life Network 
MTV Hits 
Outdoor Life Network 
PandaAmerica Shopping Network 
PanHandle Area Edu. 
Product Information Network 
PBS Kids Channel 
Reality TV 
Recovery Network 
Research Channel 
Science Channel 
Sci-Fi Channel 
Shepherd's Chapel 
Shop at Home 
Showtime (West) 
Showtime Beyond 
Showtime Extreme 
Showtime FamilyZone 
Showtime Next 
Showtime Showcase 
Showtime Showcase (West) 
Showtime Too 
Showtime Too (West) 
Showtime Women 
SIRIUS Satellite Radio (audio only) 
The Speed Channel 
Spike TV 
Sports Alternate 
Sports Alternate 2 
Sports Alternate 3 
Sports Alternate 4 
Sports Alternate 5 
Stuff TV 
The Sundance Channel 
The Sundance Channel (West) 
STARZ! (West) 
STARZ! Cinema 
STARZ! Cinema (West) 
STARZ! Family 
STARZ! Family (West) 
STARZ! Theater 
STARZ! Theater (West) 
Sunshine Network 
TBS SuperStation 
MTV Jams 
Music Choice Audio Pack
Newsworld International 
New Urban Entertainment TV 
Northern Arizona Univ. 
Nick at Nite's TV Land 
Nickelodeon/Nick at Nite 
Nickelodeon/Nick at Nite (West) 
Nickelodeon GAS 
Nicktoons TV 
Noggin/The N 
The Outdoor Channel 
The Tennis Channel 
TMCxtra (West) 
Toon Disney 
Total Living Network 
The Travel Channel 
Turner Classic Movies 
Turner South 
TV Games Network 
TV Guide Channel 
TV Outlet Mall 
University of California 
University of Washington 
Univision (West) 
USA Network 
Varsity TV 
VH-1 Classic 
VH-1 Country 
VH-1 Mega Hits 
VH-1 Soul 
The Weather Channel 
WGN SuperStation 
Wisdom TV 
Women's Entertainment 
Word Network 
WorldLink TV
Dr. Gene Scott 
International Channel 
Jewish TV Network 
The Learning Channel 
Lifetime Movie Network 
Lifetime Real Women 
Lost Children's Network 
Madison Square Garden 
MBC Network 
Men's Channel 
MoreMAX (West) 
The Movie Channel 
The Movie Channel (West) 
New England Sports Network 

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